IP RAN Architecture in a Nutshell

CS dan PS

  • CS (Circuit Switching) domain yang bertugas untuk menghandle circuit switching kayak semisal untuk voice / telponan
  • PS (Packet Switching) domain yang bertugas untuk menghandle packet switching kayak semisal untuk paket data / internetan

1G

Generasi pertama arsitektur mobile wireless yang mana komunikasi masih menggunakan sinyal analog melalui circuit switching dan hanya menyediakan komunikasi suara / voice (no data)

2G

Disini dikenalkan GSM, GPRS dan EDGE.

Pada tahap ini mulai diperkenalkan digital transmisi diluar analog. Yang mana generasi 2G awal ini dibuat untuk layanan komunikasi suara dengan tambahan agar bisa SMS (text messages) meski masih lambat.

Di tahap ini mulai diperkenalkan Mobile Station (MS) = HP yang didalamnya ada Subscriber Identity Module aka SIM Card. Yang mana melalui RF antenna akan konek ke Base Transceiver Station (BTS) terdekat.

2G Mobile Infrastructure taken from http://www.packetflow.co.uk/

* bacanya sambil liat gambar diawal

Ketika Gadget kita konek 2G, berarti kita konek ke BTS (di tower terdekat), dari BTS melalui interface Abis akan di lempar ke BSC. Di BSC yang komunikasi ke BTS pakai interface Abis juga. Dari BSC untuk circuit switching-nya (voice/telponan) akan di lempar ke MGW/MSC (CS Domain) melalui interface A, sedangkan untuk packet switching (paket data) di lempar ke SGSN/GGSN (PS Domain) melalui interface Gb (control plane & user plane).

Term di 2G

  • Base Station Controller (BSC) – Manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. It handles radio channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers. The BSC is the connection between the mobile and the Mobile Switching Center (MSC).[3] Both the BTS and BSC form the BSS (Base Station Subsystem).
  • Mobile Switching Center (MSC) – Handles calling routing, call setup and basic switching. The MSC handles multiple BSCs as well as coordinates with other MSCs.
  • Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC) – Routes subscriber calls in/out of the mobile network.
  • Home Location Register (HLR) – Database used for storage and management of subscriptions. Such as subscribers service profile, location, and activity status.[5]
  • Visitor Location Register (VLR) – Temporary database which is updated via the HLR whenever a new MS enters its area.
  • Equipment Identity Register (EIR) – A database that contains a list of all valid equipment on the network. Equipment is then marked as allowed, denied or restricted.
  • Authentication Center (AUC) – Provides a protected database that stores a copy of the secret key stored in each subscriber’s SIM card.
  • SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) – Responsible for authentication of GPRS mobiles, registration of mobiles in the network, mobility management, and collecting information on charging for the use of the air interface.[8]
  • GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) – Acts as an interface and a router to external networks. Contains routing information for GPRS mobiles that is used to tunnel packets through the internal IP network to the relevant SGSN. Also collects charging data and is able to provide packet filtering for ingress traffic.

3G

Lebih dikenal sebagai UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) dengan teknologi diantaranya ada HSPA dan HSPA+.

3G Mobile Infrastructure taken from http://www.packetflow.co.uk/

*bacanya sambil liat gambar diawal

Ketika Gadget kita konek 3G, berarti kita konek ke NodeB (di tower terdekat), dari nodeB melalui interface IuB lalu akan di lempar ke RNC. Di RNC yang ngobrol ke nodeB pakai interface IuB juga. Dari RNC untuk circuit switching-nya (voice/telponan) akan di lempar ke MGW/MSC melalui interface IuCS, sedangkan untuk packet switching (paket data) di lempar ke SGSN melalui interface IuPS.

Term di 3G

  • Radio Network Controller (RNC) – Manage NodeB

4G

Disini mulai diperkenalkan segala protocol dilewatkan menggunakan IP. Dengan arsitektur yang diperkenalkan EPC dan VoLTE.

4G Mobile Infrastructure taken from http://www.packetflow.co.uk/

*bacanya sambil liat gambar diawal

Di 4G ini untuk flownya agak sedikit berbeda. Di 4G ada yang namanya X2 interface, itu digunakan untuk handover 4G services antar eNodeB. Jadi ketika gadget kita konek ke 4G, berarti kita konek ke eNodeB (di tower terdekat), dari eNodeB melalui interface S1 lalu akan dilempar ke MME.

Seperti pada judulnya “in the nutshell”, karena memang artikel ini untuk catatan saja dan memang ga begitu lengkap. Selengkapnya cari sendiri di internet. 😛

Reference :

https://www.packetflow.co.uk/a-beginners-guide-to-mobile-wireless-communication-infrastructure/
https://www.cablefree.net/wirelesstechnology/4glte/lte-s1-interface/
https://www.cse.iitb.ac.in/~satyajit_01/seminar/wireless-3g-gprs.pdf
https://www.cablefree.net/wirelesstechnology/4glte/lte-interfaces/

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